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Cell Injury Flashcards

Sorry these are all out of order but it’s whatever lol. I’m sure my target audience for this website doesn’t really read this stuff seriously anyway. Anyway, here are some more flashcards!

A localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissues.
  1. The act of rendering active.
  2. An increase in the energy content of an atom or molecule, through the raising of temperature, absorption of light photons, etc., which renders that atom or molecule more reactive.
  3. Techniques of stimulating the brain by light, sound, electricity, or chemical agents, in order to elicit hidden or latent abnormal activity in the electroencephalogram.
  4. Stimulation of cell division in an ovum by fertilization or by artificial means.
  5. The act of making radioactive.
Acute inflammation
A reaction of the microcirculation to injury, characterized by movement of fluid and leukocytes from the blood into the affected tissue.
The process of making larger, as in increasing an auditory or visual stimulus to enhance its perception.
  1. A substance postulated to be the immediate cause of anaphylactic shock and that is assumed to result from the in vivo combination of specific antibody and the specific sensitizing material, when the latter is injected as a shock dose in a sensitized animal.
  2. The small fragment (C3a) split from the third component (C3) of complement by C3 convertase and that releases histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells, causes pig ileum to contract, and produces local wheal following intracutaneous injection in man; also used with reference to a small fragment (C5a) split from the fifth component (C5) of complement by the EAC1234 complex which has chemotactic properties as well.
  1. Vasoformative cell; a cell taking part in blood vessel formation.
  2. Primordial mesenchymal tissue from which embryonic blood cells and vascular endothelium are differentiated.
The development of the vessels.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of coal dust, thus causing the lungs and the regional lymph glands to become dark or even black in color.
Lack of development of an organ; frequently used to designate complete suppression or failure of development of a structure from the embryonic primordium.
Cell deletion by fragmentation into membrane-bound particles which are phagocytosed by other cells.
Arachidonic acid
An unsaturated fatty acid essential in nutrition; the biological precursor of prostaglandins, the thromboxanes, and the leukotrienes collectively known as eicosanoids.
A widely used analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory agent.
A defect or failure of nutrition manifested as a wasting away or diminution in the size of cell, tissue, organ or part.
An immunologically important lymphocyte that is not thymus-dependent, is of short life, and resembles the bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in that it is responsible for the production of immunoglobulins, i.e., it is the precursor of the plasma cell and does not play a role in cell-mediated immunity.
A phagocytic leukocyte of the blood characterized by numerous basophilic granules containing heparin and histamine; except for its segmented nucleus, it is morphologically and physiologically similar to the mast cell.
A kinin composed of a chain of nine amino acids (arginine, proline, proline, glycine, phenylalanine, serine, proline, phenylalanine, and arginine), liberated by the action of trypsin or of certain snake venoms on a globulin of blood plasma.
  1. Deposition of lime or other insoluble calcium salts.
  2. A process in which tissue or noncellular material in the body becomes hardened as the result of precipitates of larger deposits of insoluble salts of calcium (and also magnesium), especially calcium carbonate and phosphate (hydroxyapatite) normally occurring only in the formation of bone and teeth.
  1. A circumscribed thickening of the keratin layer of the epidermis as a result of friction or intermittent pressure.
  2. A composite mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site to establish continuity between the bone ends; it is composed initially of uncalcified fibrous tissue and cartilage, and ultimately of bone.
Caseous necrosis
Necrosis of certain inflammation (e.g., tuberculosis, histoplasmosis), which represents necrosis with loss of separate structures of the various cellular and histologic elements; affected tissue manifests the friable, crumbly consistency and dull, opaque quality observed in cheese.
Cationic proteins
Anti-microbial agents that are stored in cytoplasmic granules within polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Examples include defensins and bactericidal permeability increasing protein.
Movement of cells or organisms in response to chemicals, whereby the cells are attracted or repelled by substances exhibiting chemical properties.
Chronic inflammation
Inflammation of slow progress and marked by the formation of new connective tissue.
A semisolidified mass, as of blood of lymph.
Coagulative necrosis

A type of necrosis in which the affected cells or tissue are converted into a dry, dull, fairly homogeneous eosinophilic mass without nuclear staining, as a result of the coagulation of protein as occurs in an infarct; microscopically, the necrotic process involves chiefly the cells, and remnants of histologic elements (e.g., elastin, collagen, muscle fibers) may be recognizable, as well as "ghosts" of cells and portions of cell membranes; may be caused by heat, ischemia, and other agents that destroy tissue, including enzymes that would continue to alter the devitalized cellular substance.

An albuminoid, the main supportive protein of skin, tendon, bone, cartilage, and connective tissue. It is converted into gelatin by boiling.
Complement system
A lytic substance in normal serum that combines with antigen-antibody complex, producing lysis when the antigen is an intact cell.
A condition of fixed high resistance to passive stretch of a muscle, resulting from fibrosis of the tissues supporting the muscles or the joints, or from disorders of the muscle fibers.
A steroid produced by the adrenal cortex; a corticoid containing steroid.
Stored in primary granules of PMN's and kill a wide variety of bacteria, viruses and fungi.
Abnormal tissue development.
Dystrophic calcification
Calcification occurring in degenerated or necrotic tissue, as in hyalinized scars, degenerated foci in leiomyomas, and caseous nodules.
The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body; usually applied to demonstrable accumulation of excessive fluid in the subcutaneous tissue.
  1. The escape of fluid into a part or tissue.
  2. An effused material.
A yellow elastic fibrous mucoprotein that is the major connective tissue protein of elastic structures.
Pus in a body cavity; when used without qualification, refers specifically to pyothorax.
Endothelial cell
One of the squamous cells forming the lining of blood and lymph vessels and the inner layer of the endocardium.
A structure, cell, or histologic element readily stained by eosin; most commonly used to designate an eosinophilic leukocyte.
A form of relative leukocytosis in which the greatest proportionate increase is in the eosinophils.
One of the elements found in peripheral blood. Normally, in the human, the mature form is a non-nucleated, yellowish, circular, biconcave disk, adapted by virtue of its configuration and its hemoglobin content, to transport oxygen.
Material, such as fluid, cells,or cellular debris, which has escaped from blood vessels and been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation. An exudate, in contrast to a transudate, is characterized by a high content of protein, cells, or solid material derived from cells.
Fat necrosis
The death of adipose tissue, characterized by the formation of small (1 to 4 mm), dull, chalky, gray or white foci; these represent small quantities of calcium soaps formed in the affected tissue when fat is hydrolyzed into glycerol and fatty acids.
Fatty change
The appearance of microscopically visible droplets of fat in the cytoplasm of cells.
The iron-apoferritin complex, which is one of the forms in which iron is stored in the body.
  1. Abnormally high bodily temperature; pyrexia.
  2. Any disease characterized by marked increase of temperature, acceleration of the pulse, increased tissue destruction, restlessness, delirium.
A glycoprotein found in microfibrils associated with elastic fibers. Patients with Marfan syndrome have a mutation in the gene coding for fibrillin.
A whitish, insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin (fibrin ferment), as in the clotting of blood. Fibrin forms the essential portion of the blood clot. Cf. fibrinogen. A spongelike material of human fibrin, prepared from a foam of a solution of human fibrinogen clotted with thrombin, in the form of foam or film, may be used in various surgical procedures to induce hemostasis.
Fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles
Combination of necrosis and deposition of plasma proteins in the vessel wall.
A stellate or spindle-shaped cell with cytoplasmic processes present in connective tissue, capable of forming collagen fibers; an inactive fibroblast is sometimes called a fibrocyte.
A fibrous linking glycoprotein widely distributed in connective tissue and basement membranes, and present on cell surfaces; acts as an adhesive and as a reticuloendothelial mediated host defense mechanism which is impaired by surgery and other trauma, burns, infection, neoplasia, and disorders of the immune system.
An abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface, or from one organ to another.
Necrosis due to obstruction, loss, or diminution of blood supply; it may be localized to a small area or involve an entire extremity or organ (such as the bowel), and may be wet or dry.
Glycogen accumulation
An intracellular storage disorder caused by many different inborn errors of metabolism.
Granulation tissue
A young vascularized connective tissue formed in the process of healing of ulcers and wounds and ultimately forming the cicatrix.
Indefinite term applied to nodular inflammatory lesions; usually small or granular, firm, persistent, and containing compactly grouped mononuclear phagocytes.
Granulomatous inflammation
Inflammation composed of granulomas.
H2O2-MPO-halide system
A reaction involving a reactive oxygen metabolite (H2O2), an enzyme (myeloperoxidase), and a halide (chlorine) resulting in the formation of hypochlorous acid: a potent bactericidal agent.
Hageman factor XII
A stable factor, present in plasma and serum and poorly adsorbed by alkaline earths, which is activated by contact with glass or other foreign surfaces and initiates the process of blood coagulation in vitro. Its precise role during in vivo hemostasis remains unclear.
A tumor containing effused blood.
  1. A disorder of iron metabolism, considered to be genetically determined, and characterized by excess deposition of iron in the tissues, especially in the liver, and by pigmentation of the skin, hepatic cirrhosis, and decreased carbohydrate tolerance. Called also idiopathic hemochromatosis, iron storage disease, bronze diabetes, and pigmentary cirrhosis.
  2. A similar condition occurring in patients with refractory hemolytic anemia as the result of excessive blood transfusions or of iron salt administration, excess iron absorption, or defective iron utilization.
An insoluble form of storage iron in which the micelles of ferric hydroxide are so arranged as to be visible microscopically both with and without the use of specific staining methods.
A focal or general increase in tissue iron stores without associated tissue damage.
An amine, beta-imidazolylethyl-amine, occurring in all animal and vegetable tissues. It is a powerful dilator of the capillaries and a stimulator of gastric secretion. A pharmaceutical preparation is used to reduce sensitivity to allergens and as a diagnostic aid in testing gastric acid formation.
Hydropic swelling
Swelling containing an excess of water or of watery fluid.
The abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue.
The morbid enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its constituent cells.
Hydoxyl radicals
Formed by the radiolysis of water and by the Fenton reaction; damages cell membranes and interacts with DNA.
One of a class of structurally related proteins consisting of two pairs of polypeptide chains, one pair of light chain and one pair of heavy chains, all four linked together by disulfide bonds. On the basis of the structural and antigenic properties of the heavy chains, Ig's are classified as IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE.
Cell surface glycoproteins that mediate adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin.
A lymphokine and polypeptide hormone that is synthesized by monocytes, and that acts on the hypothalamus to induce fever and directly on skeletal muscle to promote protein catabolism.
Intracellular storage
A normal function of cells, but may be exaggerated as a result of cell injury. Examples include alcoholic fatty liver, hemosiderosis, and Tay-Sachs disease.
Deficiency of blood in a part, due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel.
A group of enzymes (e.g., plasma, tissue, pancreatic, urinary, submandibular kallekrein) that can convert kininogen by proteolysis to bradykinin or kallidin; trypsin and plasmin can also effect the conversion.
A form of necrobiosis in which the nucleus of a cell swells and gradually loses its chromatin.
The rupture of the cell nucleus in which the chromatin disintegrates into formless granules which are extruded from the cell.
A nodular, frequently lobulated, firm, movable, nonencapsulated, often linear mass of hyperplastic scar tissue, consisting of wide irregularly distributed bands of collagenous fibrous tissue; occurs in the dermis and adjacent subcutaneous tissue, usually after trauma, surgery, a burn, or severe cutaneous disease such as cystic acne, and is more common in non-Causcasians.
Kupffer cell
Reticuloendothelial cells lining the hepatic sinusoids.
A large polypeptide glycoprotein component of the basement membrane; particularly its unstained laminae.
Langhans giant cell
Formed by cytoplasmic fusion of macrophages in response to granulomatous inflammation. The nuclei are arranged around the periphery of the cell in a horse shoe pattern.
Leukemoid reaction

A moderate, advanced, or sometimes extreme degree of leukocytosis in the circulating blood, closely similar or possibly identical to that occurring in various forms of leukemia, but not the result of leukemic disease; usually, there is a disproportionate increase in the number of forms (including immature stages) in one series of leukocytes, and various examples of myelocytic, lymphocytic, monocytic, or plasmocytic leukemoid reaction may be also indistinguishable from leukocytosis that is associated with certain forms of leukemia. Leukemoid reactions are sometimes observed as a feature of:

  1. infectious disease caused by certain bacteria and other biologic agents, e.g., tuberculosis, diphtheria, chickenpox, and others
  2. intoxication of various types, e.g., eclampsia, serious burns, mustard gas poisoning, and others
  3. malignant neoplasms, e.g., carcinoma of the colon, of the lung, of the kidney, or of other organs
  4. acute hemorrhage or hemolysis
An increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood. It occurs normally during digestion and in pregnancy, and is seen as a pathologic condition in inflammation, traumatic anemia, various fevers, etc.
The antithesis of leukocytosis; any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal, the lower limit of which is generally regarded as 5000/cu mm.
Products of arachidonic acid metabolism with postulated physiologic activity such as mediators of inflammation and roles in allergic reactions; differ from the related prostablandins and thromboxanes by not having a central ring. So named because discovered in association with leukocytes and of three double bonds in the first leukotriene discovered (most have four).
Lipid peroxidation
Initiated by highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, leading to destruction of unsaturated fatty acids and loss of membrane integrity.
An inhibitor of phospholipase A2. It is upregulated by corticosteroids and serves to block the release of arachidonic acid in inflammatory cells.
Any one of a class of fatty pigments formed by the solution of a pigment in fat.
Liquifactive necrosis
A type of necrosis characterized by a fairly well circumscribed, microscopically or macroscopically visible lesion that consists of the dull, opaque or turbid, gray-white to yellow-gray, soft or boggy, partly or competely fluid remains of tissue that became necrotic and was digested by enzymes, especially proteolytic enzymes liberated from disintegrating leukocytes; it is classically observed in abscesses, and frequently in infarcts of the brain.
  1. A variety of white blood corpuscle which arises in the reticular tissue of the lymph glands. The nucleus is single and is surrounded by protoplasm which is generally described as nongranular. Two varieties are described: (a) the small lymphocytes (small mononuclear leukocytes or microlymphocytes), which are about the size of a red corpuscle and constitue from 22 to 25 per cent of the white corpuscles; (b) the large lymphocytes (macrolymphocytes or lymphoblasts), which are probably lymphocytes in their grown stage, are two or three times larger than the small lymphocytes and contain a larger proportion of protoplasm. They form about 1 per cent of the white corpuscles.
  2. A large corpuscle.
A form of actual or relative leukocytosis in which there is an increase in the number of lymphocytes.
Metchnikoff's name for a large mononuclear wandering phagocytic cell which originates in the tissues.
Mast cell
A connective tissue cell that contains coarse, basophilic, metachromatic granules; the cell is believed to contain heparin and histamine.
Any of the dark brown to block polymers of indole 5,6-quinone and / or 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid that normally occur in the skin, hair, pigmented coat of the retina, and inconstantly in the medulla and zona reticularis of the adrenal gland. Melanin may be formed in vitro or biologically by oxidation of tyrosine or tryptophan, the usual mechanism being the enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) and doapquinone by monophenol monooxygenase, and the further oxidation (probably spontaneous) of this intermediate to melanin.
Membrane attack complex
Complement components C5b, C6, C7, C8, and C9 assembled at sites of complement activation which attach to and may damage membranes of cells or bacteria.
Abnormal transformation of an adult, fully differentiated tissue of one kind into a differentiated tissue of another kind; an acquired condition, in contrast to heteroplasia.
Metastatic calcification
Calcification occurring in nonosseous, viable tissue (i.e., tissue that is not degenerated or necrotic), as in the stomach, lungs, and kidneys (and rarely in other sites); the cells of these organs secrete acid materials, and, under certain conditions in instances of hypercalcemia, the alteration in pH seems to cause precipitation of calcium salts in these sites.
Microglia cell
Small neuroglial cells, possibly of mesodermal origin, which may become phagocytic, in areas of neural damage or inflammation.
  1. Passing from one part to another, said of certain morbid processes or symptoms.
  2. Diapedesis.
  3. Movement of a tooth or teeth out of normal position.
  4. Movement of molecules during electrophoresis.
A large leukocyte, 9 to 12 microns in diameter, with an oval or indented, pale nucleus and having more protoplasm than a lymphocyte; a large hyaline leukocyte. Such cells were formerly called large.
Multinucleated giant cell

A multinucleate "cell" or syncytium formed around particulate matter in chronic inflammatory reactions.

A cell thought to be responsible for contracture of wounds; such cells have some characteristics of smooth muscle, such as contractile properties and fibrils, and are also believed to produce, temporarily, type III collagen.
Natural killer cell
Spleen cells from normal (i.e., nonimmunized) mice or blood lymphocytes from humans which lyse 'target' cells (tumor or virus-infected cells) without involvement of antibody or complement; the cells seem to be pre-T lymphocytes, but the mechanism involved in their killing activity is not clear; some, but not all, have surface Fc receptors, and interferon seems to play an as yet unexplained role.
  1. The morphological and functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the nerve cell body, the dendrites, and the axon.
  2. Obsolete term for axon.
  1. Stainable by neutral dyes.
  2. A cell or structural element, particularly a leukocyte, stainable by neutral dyes; a polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte.
Nitric oxide
A vasoactive mediator produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nitric oxide is believed to inhibit platelet aggregation and stimulate smooth muscle relaxation.
A substance that enhances phagocytosis.
The rendering of bacteria and other cells subject to phagocytosis.
A protein released by killer T cells that interacts with the target cell plasma membranes, forming a pore and causing cell death.
  1. The act of pouring over or through, especially the passage of a fluid through the vessels of a specific organ or body part.
  2. A liquid poured over or through something.
Peripheral zone (in blood vessels)
On vasodilation following tissue injury, the blood flow slows and leukocytes appear in the peripheral zone, which was previously acellular. This process in termed margination.
Plasma cell neoplasia
A group of related malignant disorders of terminally-differentiated B-lymphocytes (plasma cells).
The active portion of the fibrinolytic or clot-lysing system, a proteolytic enzyme with a high specificity for fibrin, with the particular ability to dissolve formed fibrin clots but also having a similar effect on other plasma proteins and clotting factors.
Platelet activating factor (PAF)
A substance released from basophilic leukocytes that causes aggregation of platelets and also is involved in the deposition of immune complexes.
A circular or oval disk, 2-3 micrometer in diameter, found in the blood of all mammals, which is concerned in coagulation of the blood and in contraction of the clot, and hence in hemostasis and thrombosis. They average 250,000 per cu.mm. of blood.
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)
A leukocyte which has a nucleus deeply lobed or so divided that it appears to be multiple.
Postcapillary venule
The microvasculature immediately following the capillaries, ranging in size from 10 to 50 micrometers, and characterized by investment of pericytes; they are the site of extravasation of blood cells, are particularly sensitive to histamine, and are believed to be important in blood-interstitial fluid exchanges.
Precapillary arteriole
Vasodilation of precapillary arterioles increases blood flow to injured tissues, a condition known as hyperemia.
A potent natural inhibitor of platelet aggregation and a powerful vasodilator.
A naturally occurring substance, first found in the semen of man and sheep, that causes strong contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of certain vascular beds; subsequently found also in menstrual fluid.
Purulent exudate
Exudate consisting of containing pus: associated with the formation of or caused by pus.
A thickening or condensation; specifically, a condensation and reduction in size of the cell or its nucleus, usually associated with hyperchromatosis; nuclear pyknosis is a stage of necrosis.
Distention of a fallopian tube with pus.
An agent that causes a rise in temperature; pyrogens are produced by bacteria, molds, viruses, and yeast, and commonly occur in distilled water.
The natural renewal of a substance, such as a lost tissue or part.
Restoration of diseased or damaged tissues naturally by healing processes or artificially, as by surgical means.
  1. The subsidence of a pathologic state, as the subsidence of an inflammation, or the softening and disappearance of a swelling.
  2. The perception as separate of two adjacent objects or points.

In microscopy, it is the minimal distance at which two adjacent small objects can be distinguished as separate. The resolving power of an instrument depends on the wavelength of the radiation used and the numerical aperture of the system; it is expressed in microns distance or lines per millimeter.

A systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause, especially involving the lungs with resulting fibrosis, but also involving lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands; granulomas are composed of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little or no necrosis.
A mark remaining after the healing of a wound or other morbid process. By extension applied to other visible manifestations of an earlier event.
Systemic disease caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins via the circulating blood.
Serofibrinous inflammation
Inflammation in which the exudate consists chiefly of serous fluid with an unusually large proportion of fibrin.
Chemical name: 3-(2-aminoethyl)-5-indolol; a constituent of blood platelets, enterochromaffin cells, and of other organs: used as an experimental agent to induce vasocontriction and alter neuronal functions.
Serous inflammation
An exudative inflammation in which the exudate is predominantly fluid (i.e., exuded from the blood vessels), with the protein, electrolytes, and other material contained therein; relatively few (if any) cells are observed.
Suppurative inflammation
Inflammation producing pus, or associated with suppuration.
A thymocyte-derived lymphocyte of immunological importance that is long-lived (months to years) and is responsible for cell-mediated immunity. T-lymphocytes form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and, in the presence of transforming agents (mitogens), differentiate and divide.
Thromboxane A2
A prostaglandin formed from arachidonic acid in inflammatory cells by the cyclooxygenase pathway.
A plug or clot in a blood vessel or in one of the cavities of the heart, formed by coagulation of the blood, and remaining at the point of its formation.
Tight junction
An intercellular junction between epithelial cells in which the outer leaflet of lateral cell membranes fuse to form a variable number of parallel interweaving strands that greatly reduce transepithelial permeability to macromolecules, solutes, and water via the paracellular route.
A fluid substance which has passed through a membrane or been extruded from a tissue, sometimes as a result of inflammation. A transudate, in contrast to an exudate, is characterized by high fluidity and a low content of protein, cells, or of solid materials derived from cells.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
A polypeptide hormone produced by endotoxin-activated macrophages which hs the ability to modulate adipocyte metabolism, lyse tumor cells in vitro, and induce hemorrhagic necrosis of certain transplantable tumors in vivo.
Vascular smooth muscle cell
Responds to various vasoactive mediators, causing vasodilation or vasoconstriction.
Wound contraction
Process of closing gaps in deep wounds that is mediated by myofibroblasts.