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Gastro Flashcards

Here are some flashcards!

Achalasia
Failure to relax of the smooth muscle fibers of the gastrointestinal tract at any point of junction of one part with another, such as the failure to relax of the smooth muscle fibers of the lower esophagus, called achalasia of the esophagus, characterized by dilatation and hypertrophy of the esophagus above an atrophic lower segment (mega-esophagus).
Acute (erosive) gastritis
Inflammation, especially mucosal, of the stomach.
Acute appendicitis
Acute inflammation of the appendix, usually due to bacterial infection, which may be precipitated by obstruction of the lumen by a fecalith; symptoms of periumbilical colicky pain and vomiting are followed by fever, leukocytosis, persistent pain, and signs of peritoneal inflammation in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen; perforation or abscess formation is a frequent complication.
Acute intestinal ischemia
Most often caused by embolic or thrombotic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.
Adenocarcinoma
A malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells in glandular or glandlike pattern.
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)
Autosomal dominant trait characterized by progressive development of innumerable adenomatous polyps of the colon.
Adenomatous polyps
A polyp that consists of benign neoplastic tissue derived from glandular epithelium.
Angiodysplasia
Degenerative dilation of the normal vasculature.
Autoimmune gastritis
Chronic diffuse inflammatory disease of the stomach associated with autoimmune phenomenon. Pernicious anemia is a common complication.
Bacterial diarrhea
Typically caused by toxogenic strains of E. coli and Vibrio cholera.
Barrett esophagus
Chronic peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, which is lined by columnar epithelium, resembling the mucosa of the gastric cardia, acquired as a result of long-standing chronic esophagitis; esophageal stricture with reflux, and adenocarcinoma, have also been reported.
Carcinoid syndrome
A combination of symptoms and lesions usually produced by the release of serotonin from carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract which have metastasized to the liver; consists of irregular mottled blushing, angiomas of the skin, acquired tricuspid and pulmonary stenosis with some minor involvement of valves on the left side of the heart, diarrhea, bronchial spasm, mental aberration, and excretion of large quantities of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.
Carcinoid tumor
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface; neoplastic cells are frequently palisaded at the periphery of the small groups, and the latter have a tendency to infiltrate surrounding tissue.
Carcinoma of the stomach
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach accounts for more than 95% of all malignant gastric tumors. It originates from mucus cells or areas of intestinal metaplasia.
Celiac disease
Gluten-sensitive enteropathy characterized by generalized malabsorption and small intestinal mucosal lesions.
Chagas disease
Trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma (or Schizotrypanum) cruzi and transmitted by certain species of reduviid (triatomine) bugs. In its acute form, it is seen most frequently in young children, with swelling of the skin at the site of entry, most often the face, and regional lymph node enlargement; in its chronic form it can assume several aspects, commonly cardiomyopathy, but megacolon and megaesophagus also occur; natural reservoirs include dogs, armadillos, rodents, and other domestic, domiciliated, and wild animals.
Chemical esophagitis
Chemical injury to the esophagus usually a result of accidental poisoning or attempted suicide.
Chronic idiopathic gastritis
An inflammatory disease of the stomach of unknown etiology. It is more common than autoimmune gastritis.
Congenital pyloric stenosis
Hypertrophic obstruction of the pyloric orifice of the stomach.
Crohn disease
Variously referred to terminal ileitis, regional ileitis, granulomatous colitis and transmural colitis.
Diverticulitis
Inflammation of a diverticulum; a condition marked by the formation of small pouches along the border of the colon, which become filled with feces which sometimes set up irritation and give rise to inflammation and abscess.
Diverticulosis
The presence of diverticula, particularly intestinal diverticula.
Dysphagia
Difficulty in swallowing.
Epiphrenic diverticula
A diverticulum which originates just above the cardioesophageal junction and usually protrudes to the right side of the lower meadiastinum.
Esophageal atresia
Congenital failure of the full esophageal lumen to develop.
Esophageal stricture
A serious, late complication of esophagitis. The most common clinical complaint is progressive dysphagia.
Esophageal varices
Longitudinal venous varices at the lower end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension; they are superficial and liable to ulceration and massive bleeding
Esophageal web
A cribiform web or web formation in the esophagus caused by an irregular atrophy.
Gastric lymphoma
Primary lymphoma to the stomach. It is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Gluten-sensitive enteropathy
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine; manifestations include diarrhea, malabsorption, steatorrhea, and nutritional and vitamin deficiencies.
Helicobacter pylori
Gram-negative rods with polar flagellae. H. pylori causes one of the most common chronic infections, namely infectious gastritis.
Hemorrhoids
A varicose dilatation of a vein of the superior or inferior hemorrhoidal plexus.
Hiatal hernia
Protrusion of any structure through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.
Hirschsprung disease
Massive enlargement of the colon, resulting from obstruction caused by an aganglionic segment of bowel.
Hyperplastic polyp
A benign small sessile polyp of the large bowel showing lengthening and cystic dilation of mucosal glands; also applied to non-neoplastic gastric mucosal polyps.
Infectious esophagitis
Primary infections of the esophagus are rare, but are caused by candidiasis and herpes simplex.
Infectious gastritis
Chronic inflammatory disease of the antrum and body of the stomach caused by Helicobacter pylori.
Inflammatory polyp
A projecting mass of granulation tissue, large numbers of which may develop in ulcerative colitis; may become covered by regenerating epithelium.
Intestinal metaplasia
The transformation of mucosa, particularly in the stomach, into glandular mucosa resembling that of the intestines, although usually lacking villi.
Intussusception

A receiving within: specifically,

  1. The prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of an immediately adjoining part. There are four varieties: colic, involving segments of the large intestine; enteric, involving only the small intestine; ileocecal, in which the ileocecal valve prolapses into the cecum, drawing the ileum along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the colon.
  2. In physiology, the reception into an organism of matter, such as food, and its transformation into new protoplasm.
Ischemic bowel disease
Decreased blood flow to the intestines, typically caused by arterial occlusion, volvulus, intusseption and incarceration of the bowel.
Ischemic colitis
Decreased blood flow to the large bowel, leading to segmental infarction. The most common cause is atherosclerosis.
Krukenberg tumor
A special type of carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from cancer of the gastro-intestinal tract, especially of the stomach. It is characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. Called also carcinoma mucocellulare and by Krukenberg, fibrosarcoma ovarii mucocellulare carcinomatodes.
Lactase deficiency
Deficiency in the intestinal enzyme that splits lactose into glucose and galactose.
Leiomyoma
A benign neoplasm derived from smooth (nonstriated) muscle.
Leiomyosarcoma
A malignant neoplasm derived from smooth (nonstriated) muscle.
Leukoplakia
A disease marked by the development upon the mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, or tongue of white, thickened patches which sometimes show a tendency to fissure. It is common in smokers and sometimes becomes malignant. Called also leukokeratosis, leukoma, smoker's tongue, smokers' patches, psoriasis buccalis, and psoriasis of the tongue.
Linitis plastica
Diffuse hypertrophy of the submucous connective tissue of the stomach, rendering the walls of the stomach rigid, thick, and hard, like a leather bag. Called also Brinton's disease, hypertrophic gastritis, gastric sclerosis, cirrhosis of the stomach, fibromatosis ventriculi, cirrhotic gastritis and leather bottle stomach.
Malabsorption
Disorder of normal nutritive absorption; disordered anabolism.
Meckel diverticulum
An occsaional sacculation or appendage of the ileum, derived from an unobliterated yolk stalk.
Meconium ileus
Intestinal obstruction in the newborn following inspissation of meconium due to lack of trypsin; associated with cystic fibrosis of pancreas.
Mediterranean lymphoma
Diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the proximal small bowel mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes resulting in diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, and clubbing of fingers and toes; seen in poor people in developing countries.
Mucocele
  1. Dilatation of a cavity with accumulated mucous secretion.
  2. A mucous polyp.
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
An acute superficial necrosis of the mucosa of the small intestine and colon, characterized by profound shock and dehydration, and the passage per rectum of seromucus, often mixed with blood, and shreds or casts of the bowel wall.
Ondynophagia
Pain on swallowing.
Peptic ulcer disease
An ulceration of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, caused by the action of the acid gastric juice.
Pernicious anemia
A megaloblastic anemia generally occurring in later adult life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in whcih the laboratory and clinical manifestations are predicted on the reduced ability to absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract due to a failure of gastric mucosal secretion of intrinsic factor.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Gastrointestinal polyposis associated with excessive melanin pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes, commonly a familial condition.
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Dysphagia with glossitis, hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly, and atrophy in the mouth, pharynx and upper side of the esophagus.
Pseudomembranous colitis
Enterocolitis with the formation and passage of pseudomembranous material in the stools; occurs most commonly as a sequel to antibiotic therapy.
Reflux esophagitis
Inflammation of the lower esophagus from regurgitation of acid gastric contents, usually due to malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter; symptoms include substernal pain, heartburn, and regurgitation of acid juice.
Schatzki ring
A contraction ring or incomplete diaphragm in the lower third of the esophagus which is occasionally symptomatic.
Signit ring cells
A cell in which the nucleus has been pressed to one side.
Squamous cell carcinoma
A malignant neoplasm derived from stratified squamous epithelium, but which may also occur in sites, such as bronchial mucosa, where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present; variable amounts of keratin are formed, in relation to the degree of differentiation, and, if the keratin is not on the surface, it accumulates in the neoplasm as a keratin pearl; in instances in which the cells are well differentiated, intercellular bridges may be observed between adjacent cells; a common example in lower animals is ocular squamous cell carcinoma of Hereford cattle.
Toxic megacolon
Acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon.
Tracheoesophageal fistula
An abnormal passage communicating with the esophagus and trachea.
Traction diverticula
A localized distortion, angulation, or funnel-shaped bulging of the full thickness of the wall of the esophagus, caused by adhesions resulting from some external lesion.
Ulcerative colitis
Chronic ulceration of the colon.
Viral gastroenteritis
Rotavirus is a common cause of infantile diarrhea. Other agents include norwalk viruses, echovirus, coxavirus and cytomagalovirus.
Virchow node
Sentinel lymph node.
Volvulus
Intestinal obstruction due to a knotting and twisting of the bowel.
Western-type intestinal lymphoma
Primary lymphoma of the intestine (mainly ileum). It occurs typically in children younger than 10 and adults over 40.
Whipple disease
A rare disease characterized by steatorrhea, frequently generalized lymphadenopathy, arthritis, fever, and cough; many "foamy" macrophages are found in the jejunal lamina propria; lymph nodes contain periodic acid-Schiff positive particles that appear bacilliform by electron microscopy.
Zenker diverticulum
A pulsion diverticulum of the esophagus.

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