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Liver Flashcards

Here are some more flashcards!

Acute cholecystitis
Congestion and or hemorrhagic necrosis, with variable infection, ulceration, and neutrophilic infiltration of the gallbladder wall; usually due to impaction of a stone in the cystic duct.
Acute pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas, with pain and tenderness of the abdomen, tympanites, and vomiting.
Acute viral hepatitis
Viral infection of hepatocytes that produces necrosis and inflammation.
Alcoholic cirrhosis
A cirrhosis due to an inadequate diet in heavy drinkers.
Alcoholic hepatitis
An acute necrotizing lesion, characterized by hepatocyte necrosis, cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions, neutrophilic inflammatory response and perivascular fibrosis.
Alcoholic liver disease
The spectrum of alcoholic liver disease includes fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
Deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin, a glycoprotein of the postalbumin region of human serum, which may be moderate (40-60% of normal activity) or severe (less than 10% of normal) and is gene-determined; the severe form is often associated with familial emphysema or hepatic cirrhosis; autosomal recessive inheritance.
Autoimmune hepatitis
Also called "lupus hepatitis." It occurs primarily in young and middle-aged women.
Bile peritonitis
The presence of bile in the peritoneum resulting from rupture of the bile passages.
Biliary atresia
Atresia of the major bile ducts, causing cholestasis and jaundice which does not become apparent until several days after birth; periportal fibrosis develops and leads to cirrhosis, with proliferation of small bile ducts unless these are also atretic; giant cell transformation of hepatic cells also occurs.
Bilirubin
The end product of heme-catabolism.
Budd-Chiari syndrome
Thrombosis of the hepatic vein with great enlargement of the liver and extensive development of collateral vessels, intractable ascites, and severe portal hypertension.
Carcinoma of gallbladder
Rare cancer of the gallbladder, usually an adenocarcinoma, thought to be related to the buildup of gallstones.
Central hyaline sclerosis
Histopathic finding in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The central terminal venule is obliterated by fibrous tissue.
Centrilobular necrosis
Necrosis of hepatocytes in the oxygen-poor zone surrounding the central veins. It is a characteristic finding in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.
Cholangiocarcinoma
An adenocarcinoma, primarily in intrahepatic bile ducts, composed of ducts lined by cuboidal or columnar cells that do not contain bile, with abundant fibrous stroma; cirrhosis is usually absent.
Cholelilthiasis
The presence or formation of gallstones.
Cholestasis
Inflammation of the gallbladder.
Cholestatic jaundice
Jaundice produced by inspissated bile or bile plugs in small biliary passages in the liver.
Cholesterol gallstones
A concentration of cholesterol formed in the gallbladder or bile duct.
Chronic cholecystitis
Chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, usually secondary to lithiasis, with lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis that may produce thickening of the wall.
Chronic hepatitis
Any of several types of hepatitis persisting for more than six months, often progressing to cirrhosis.
Chronic pancreatitis
A condition of fibrosis of the pancreas.
Cirrhosis
Progressive disease of the liver characterized by diffuse damage to hepatic parenchymal cells, with nodular regeneration, fibrosis, and disturbance of normal architecture; associated with failure in the function of hepatic cells and interference with blood flow in the liver, frequently resulting in jaundice, portal hypertension, ascites, and ultimately hepatic failure.
Confluent hepatic necrosis
A severe variant of acute viral hepatitis characterized by death of a large number of hepatocytes.
Councilman bodies
An eosinophilic globule, seen in the liver in yellow fever, derived from necrosis of a single hepatic cell.
Crigler-Najjar disease
A rare defect in ability to form bilirubin glucuronide due to deficiency of bilirubin-glucuronside glucuronosyltransferase; characterized by familial non-hemolytic jaundice and, in its severe form, by irreversible brain damage that resembles kernicterus and may be fatal; autosomal recessive inheritance.
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
Chronic idiopathic jaundice characterized by clinical exacerbations and remissions, and by the presence of a brown, coarsely granular pigment in the hepatic cells, which is pathognomonic of the condition.
Fatty liver
A liver affected with fatty degeneration and infiltration.
Fibrocongestive splenomegaly
Caused by chronic passive congestion. The spleen is modestly enlarged and has a thickened fibrotic capsule.
Focal nodular hyperplasia
Non-neoplastic, nodular liver mass.
Galactosemia
  1. A hereditary disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, poor weight gain, and malnutrition in early infancy.
  2. The presence of galactose in the blood.
Gastinoma
An islet cell tumor consisting of G-cells which secrete gastrin. Pancreatic gastrinoma is the cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
Gilbert syndrome
Mild jaundice due to increased amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in the plasma without evidence of liver damage, biliary obstruction, or hemolysis; thought to be due to an inborn error of metabolism in which the excretion of bilirubin by the liver is defective, ascribed to decreased conjugation of bilirubin as a glucuronide.
Glycogen storage disease
A chronic metabolic abnormality of childhood characterized by enormous enlargement of the liver (due to storage of glycogen), hypoglycemia, and failure of epinephrin to mobilize glycogen (due to enzyme shortage in the liver). Called also glycogen disease,von Gierke's disease, glycogenic hepatomegaly, glycogen accumulation, and glycogenic thesaurismosis.
Hemangioma
A benign tumor made up of new-formed blood vessels.
Hepatic encephalopathy
An encephalopathy associated with cirrhosis of the liver, attributed to the passage of toxic nitrogenous substances from the portal to the systemic circulation; cerebral manifestations may include coma.
Hepatic failure
Inability of the liver to perform.
Hepatitis A
A virus disease with a short incubation period (usually 15 to 50 days), caused by hepatitis A virus often transmitted by fecal-oral route; may be inapparent, mild, severe, or occasionally fatal and occurs sporadically or in epidemics, commonly in school-age children and young adults; necrosis of periportal liver cells with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration is characteristic and jaundice is a common symptom.
Hepatitis B
A virus disease with a long incubation period (usually 50 to 160 days), caused by hepatitis B virus usually transmitted by injection of infected blood or blood derivatives or by use of contaminated needles, lancets, or other instruments; clinically and pathologically similar to viral hepatitis type A, but there is no cross-protective immunity.
Hepatitis C
Formerly referred to as non-A, non-B hepatitis. Hepatitis C accounts for 90% of cases of hepatitis that develop after blood transfusion.
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.
Hepatocellular carcinoma
A carcinoma derived from parenchymal cells of the liver.
Hepatorenal syndrome
Renal changes and symptoms produced by traumatism of the liver: abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, fever, rapid pulse, albuminuria, delirium, and coma, occurring as a syndrome in inflammation of the liver and gallbladder.
Hereditary hemochromatosis
A specific inherited metabolic defect with increased absorption and accumulation of iron on a normal diet; autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance in females; juvenile hemochromatosis may represent a homozygous state of the same gene.
Hyperbilirubinemia
An excess of bilirubin in the blood.
Insulinoma
A tumor consisting of tissue from the islands of Langerhans.
Intrahepatic cholestasis
Plugs of bile in dilated bile canaliculi and visible bile pigment in hepatocytes. It is one of the most frequent manifestations of drug-induced liver injury.
Jaundice
A syndrome characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigment in the skin and mucous membranes with resulting yellow appearance in the patient.
Macrovesicular steatosis
A morphologic type of fatty liver, in which large fat droplets distend the cells and displace the nuclei.
Mallory bodies
Bodies resembling protozoa, seen in lymph spaces and epithelial cells of the skin in scarlet fever.
Microvesicular steatosis
Small droplets of fat in liver cells with a centrally-located nucleus. Commonly associated with Reye syndrome and other cases of severe liver disease.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
Presence of functioning tumors in more than one endocrine gland, commonly the pancreatic islets and parathyroid glands, which may be associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; dominant inheritance.
Neonatal hepatitis
Hepatitis of unknown cause, characterized by onset of obstructive jaundice in the neonatal period, hepatocellular degeneration, and appearance of multinucleated giant cells; may be difficult to distinguish from biliary atresia, but is more likely to end with recovery, although cirrhosis may develop.
Nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis
Another name for primary biliary cirrhosis; it is characterized by destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Nutmeg liver
One presenting a mottled appearance when cut.
Pancreatic carcinoma
Ductal adenocarcinoma is a virtually incurable malignancy.
Pancreatic cystadenoma
Large multiloculated, cystic benign tumors usually localized in the body or tail of the pancreas.
Pancreatic pseudocyst
An accumulation of pancreatic juice in the retroperitoneal space, as a result of necrosis and rupture of a pancreatic duct.
Pigment gallstones
The pathogenesis of black pigment stones is related to an increased concentration of unconjugated bilirubin in the bile.
Portal hypertension
Abnormally increased blood pressure in the portal venous system, a frequent complication of cirrhosis of the liver.
Primary biliary cirrhosis
A rare condition occurring mainly in middle-aged women, characterized by obstructive jaundice with hyperlipemia, pruritis, and hyperpigmentation of the skin; no obstruction of large bile ducts or proliferation of small bile ducts is found; the liver shows cirrhosis with marked portal infiltration by lymphocytes and plasma cells, and frequently by epithelioid cell granulomas; serum antimitochondrial antibodies are present in 85 to 90% of patients.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Recurrent or persistent obstructive jaundice, frequently with ulcerative colitis, due to extensive obliterative fibrosis of the extrahepatic of intrahepatic bile ducts; generally progesses to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and liver failure; seen most commonly in young men.
Reye syndrome
A disorder of young children following an acute febrile illness, usually influenza or varicella infection, characterized by recurrent vomiting beginning within a week after onset of the infection and from which the child either recovers within a day or two or lapses into a coma with intracranial hypertension; serum transaminases are elevated; death may result from edema of the brain and resulting cerebral herniation.
Schistosomiasis
Infection with a species of Schistosomia; manifestations of this often chronic and debilatory disease vary with the infecting species but depend in large measure upon tissue reaction (granulation and fibrosis) to the eggs deposited in venules and in the hepatic portals, the latter resulting in portal hypertension and esophageal varices, as well as liver damage leading to cirrhosis.
Secondary biliary cirrhosis
The end-stage of primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Somatostatinoma
A somatostatin-secreting tumor of the pancreatic islets.
Steatorrhea
The excessive loss of fats in the feces.
Toxic liver injury
Acute chemically-induced hepatic injury.
VIPoma
An endocrine tumor, usually originating in the pancreas, which produces a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide believed to cause profound cardiovascular and electrolyte changes with vasodilatory hypotension, watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dehydration.
Wilson disease
  1. Dermatitis exfoliativa.
  2. Progressive lenticular degeneration.

Causes too much copper to accumulate in the organs.

Xanthomas
A condition characterized by the presence of small, flat plaques of a yellow color in the skin, due to deposits of lipids. Microscopically the lesions show light cells with foamy protoplasm (foam cells, or xanthoma cells).
Zollingear-Ellison syndrome

A triad comprising:

  1. intractable, sometimes fulminating, and in many ways atypical peptic ulcers;
  2. extreme gastric hyperacidity, and
  3. non-beta cell, non-insulin-secreting islet cell tumors, which might be single or multiple, small or large, innocent or malignant.
Zonal hepatocellular necrosis
Necrosis predominantly affecting or limited to an anatomical zone, especially parts of the hepatic lobules defined according to proximity to either the portal tracts or central (hepatic) veins.

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